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Costal metastasis revealing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Esophageal cancer is associated with poor prognosis. Its severity is linked to delayed diagnosis which is most often made once a cancer has metastasized, in Africa. Costal metastases are rare. We report a case of a 38-year old Senegalese patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower esophagus with lytic metastases to the ribs. Mrs. TD, aged 38, was admitted with painful swelling in right hemithorax associated with weight loss. The patient also reported mechanical dysphagia evolving during 4 months which had not motivated consultation. Clinical examination showed a poor general condition, a hard, sensitive swelling measuring 3 cm along its longer axis, located on the anterolateral surface of the right hemithorax at the level of the 5thrib. Biological examinations showed normocytic normochromic anemia with hemoglobin level of 9.4 g/dl, non-specific biological inflammatory syndrome, and hypercalcemia (corrected calcium = 107 mg/l. Oesogastroduodenal endoscopy showed a ulcerative, budding, stenotic lesion 32 cm from the dental arches. Anatomopathological examination of the biopsies revealed moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to oesophageal tumor, thoracoabdominal-pelvic computed tomography showed bone lysis involving the anterior arch of the 5th rib, carcinomatous pulmonary nodules and bilateral pleural effusion. Pleural fluid aspiration through an exploratory needle showed serohematic fluid and the cytological examination of this fluid objectified carcinomatous cells. The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the lower esophagus with rib, pleural and pulmonary metastases was retained and palliative treatment was initiated. The evolution was marked by the death of the patient 3 months after gastrostomy, within a context of respiratory distress. The originality of this observation is related to the atypical seat of metastases of this cancer of the esophagus as well as the risk factors of this tumor. Cancer of the esophagus in young adults is a major problem in Africa. The challenge is to determine its risk factors in order to prevent its occurrence.

Auteur(s) : Gueye MN1, Diouf G1, Dia D1, Boye A1, Fall T1, Diémé JL1, Ba O1, Mbengue M1.
Pages : e collection
Année de publication : 2017
Revue : Pan Afr Med J
N° de volume : 26:23
Type : Article
Mise en ligne par : DIA Daouda