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Etiology of Severe Acute Watery Diarrhea in Children in the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network Using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction.

Background. The etiology of acute watery diarrhea remains poorly characterized, particularly after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Methods. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction for multiple enteropathogens on 878 acute watery diarrheal stools sampled from 14 643 episodes captured by surveillance of children <5 years of age during 2013–2014 from 16 countries. We used previously developed models of the association between pathogen quantity and diarrhea to calculate pathogen-specific weighted attributable fractions (AFs). Results. Rotavirus remained the leading etiology (overall weighted AF, 40.3% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 37.6%–44.3%]), though the AF was substantially lower in the Americas (AF, 12.2 [95% CI, 8.9–15.6]), based on samples from a country with universal rotavirus vaccination. Norovirus GII (AF, 6.2 [95% CI, 2.8–9.2]), Cryptosporidium (AF, 5.8 [95% CI, 4.0–7.6]), Shigella (AF, 4.7 [95% CI, 2.8–6.9]), heat-stable enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (ST-ETEC) (AF, 4.2 [95% CI, 2.0–6.1]), and adenovirus 40/41 (AF, 4.2 [95% CI, 2.9–5.5]) were also important. In the Africa Region, the rotavirus AF declined from 54.8% (95% CI, 48.3%–61.5%) in rotavirus vaccine age-ineligible children to 20.0% (95% CI, 12.4%–30.4%) in age-eligible children. Conclusions. Rotavirus remained the leading etiology of acute watery diarrhea despite a clear impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction. Norovirus GII, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, ST-ETEC, and adenovirus 40/41 were also important. Prospective surveillance can help identify priorities for further reducing the burden of diarrhea.

Auteur(s) : Darwin J. Operario, James A. Platts-Mills, Sandrama Nadan, Nicola Page, Mapaseka Seheri, Jeffrey Mphahlele, Ira Praharaj, Gagandeep Kang, Irene T.
Pages : 220 à 227
Année de publication : 2017
Revue : The Journal of Infectious Diseases
N° de volume : 2017:216
Type : Article
Mise en ligne par : DIOP Amadou