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Physical characteristics, Chemical composition and Distribution of constituents of the Neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) collected in Senegal

Abstract Neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) collected in southwest Senegal were characterized. The physical characterization revealed an average seed weight of 0.28 g with 50.89% of kernel and 49.11% of hull. These seeds contain 29.27±0.06% of lipids, 12.10±0.32% of proteins and 43.98±2.67% of parietal constituents (celluloses, hemicelluloses and lignins) with 30.33±1.12% of cellulose containing 68.96% of fibers. The study of the constituent(s) distribution showed that 96.82% of the lipids and 92.20% of the proteins are localized in the kernel, while 92.22% of the parietal constituents are localized in the hull. The azadirachtin is localized in the kernel (99.35%). Neem seeds also contain 14.99±0.37% of hydrosoluble, 0.11±0.05% of polyphenols and 0.76‰ of essential oil. The composition of the proteins revealed 17 amino acids with the predominant compound being glutamic acid (23.65%). The oil fatty acids are oleic acid (41.91±0.69%), linoleic acid (19.59±0.44%), stearic acid (18.71±0.46%) and palmitic acid (15.59 ± 0.27%). The oil is predominantly composed of unsaturated fatty acids (63% in the fatty acids composition). The oil is mainly composed of triglycerides (97.69%). These are mostly made up of SOL (52.93%) and POL (36.61%). The sterols being present at 2.04 in the oil are mainly composed of -sitosterol, which represents 61.08% of the total sterols. The total tocopherol content is 33.87 mg. 100g-1 and the - tocopherol is the major compound with 68.69% of total tocopherols. Keywords: Azadirachta indica, neem seeds, oil, proteins, azadirachtin, parietal constituents.

Auteur(s) : Diedhiou Djibril, Faye Mamadou, Vilarem Gérard, Mar-Diop Codou Geuye, Sock Oumar and Rigal Luc
Pages : 52-58
Année de publication : 2015
Revue : Research Journal of Chemical Sciences
N° de volume : 5
Type : Article
Mise en ligne par : FAYE Mamadou