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Evaluation of Vascular and Metabolic Complications in Obese SubSaharan African Subjects: Effect of Fat Mass

Background: The obesity phenomenon continues to effect of the African continent and such excess weight creates cardiovascular and metabolic risk. However, few studies in Sub-Saharan Africa have evaluated the occurrence, mechanisms, morbidity, and mortality related to obesity. Our aim was to study the effect of fat mass on the occurrence of high blood pressure and diabetes among Sub-Saharan African sedentary adults. Methods: The study population included 330 subjects from the general population of Dakar City (Senegal). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated among our subjects. They were divided to three groups according to BMI: group 1 (G1): normal subjects (BMI 18 to 24.9 kg / m 2 ), group 2 (G2):overweight subjects (BMI = 25 - 29.9 kg / m 2 ), and group 3 (G3): obese subjects (BMI ? 30 Kg/m 2 ). Prevalence of diabetes and high blood pressure and body composition (fat mass: FM; lean mass: LM; and fat index: FI) were investigated in all subjects and the comparison per group was realized. Results: Normal weight, overweight, and obese subjects represented 28.9%, 36.3%, and 35.1% of study population respectively. Prevalence of diabetes and high blood pressure was significantly (p<0.05) higher in G2 and in G3 than in G1. However, the proportion of hypertensive individuals in the obese population was significantly higher than the proportion of overweight subjects (p<0.0001; odds ratio: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.062-0.324). In G1, all hypertensive subjects were men (p <0.006), and in G2, high arterial pressure was more frequent among women compared to men (p= 0.001; odds ratio: 5.05; 95% CI: 1.821 - 14.01). Our results also demonstrated that BMI, FM, and FI were factors independently associated with plasma glucose level and mean arterial pressure in our study population. Conclusion:Our study suggested that obesity is a real phenomenon in Senegal and that excessive body fat is a factor favoring occurrence of hypertension and/or diabetes. Thus, we recommend body fat reduction means to prevent cardiovascular or metabolic complications related to obesity in Obese Sub-Saharan African population. Keywords: Obesity, Arterial hypertension, West Africa, Body composition

Auteur(s) : Mor Diaw , Aissatou Seck , Raissa Attieh , Abdou Khadir Sow , Valentin Ouedraogo , Maimouna Toure , Salimata H.Diagne , Arnaud Jean Florent Tie
Année de publication : 2016
Revue : Journal of Global Diabetes & Clinical Metabolism
N° de volume : Volume 1
Type : Article
Mise en ligne par : DIAW Mor