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High level of treatment failure and drug resistance to first-line antiretroviral therapies among HIV-infected children receiving decentralized care in Senegal

Background: In Senegal in 2015, an estimated 4800 children were living with HIV, with 1200 receiving ARV treatment, of whom half had follow-up care in decentralized sites outside Dakar. However, until now no studies have determined the efficacy of pediatric treatment in decentralized settings, even though the emergence of viral resistance, particularly among children in Africa, is a well-known phenomenon. This study aimed to assess the virological status of HIV-infected children in all decentralized facilities to help improve access to quality care. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological and virological study was conducted in all of Senegal's regions, except Dakar, between March and June 2015 and sought to include all HIV-infected children and adolescents (0-19 years), treated or not with ARVs. Socio-demographic and clinical data and a blood sample on blotting paper were collected for children from treatment sites. Samples were routed on public transportation, assisted by a network of community health workers. A viral load (VL) assay was performed for each child, followed by genotyping when it exceeded 1000 copies/mL (3 log10). Results: Of the 851 identified children, 666 (78%) were enrolled in the study. Half of the children were girls, and the average age was 8 years (6 months-19 years). Most of the children (96.7%) were infected with HIV-1, and 90% were treated with ART, primarily with AZT + 3TC + NVP/EFV therapeutic regimen. The median duration of time on ART was 21 months (1-129). VL was measured for 2% of children before this study. Almost two-thirds (64%) of the children are experiencing virological failure. Among them, there was resistance to at least one drug for 86.5% of cases. Also, 25% children presented resistance to one drug and 40% to two out of three. For nearly one-third of the children presenting resistance, none of the three drugs of the treatment was active. Factors associated with virological failure were male sex, follow-up by a generalist rather than a specialist, and treatment interruptions. Conclusions: We observed a high level of virological failure and a high percentage of viral resistance among children receiving health care in decentralized facilities in Senegal.

Auteur(s) : Cissé AM, Laborde-Balen G, Kébé-Fall K, Dramé A, Diop H, Diop K, FatouNiasse-Traoré, Coulibaly M, Have NN, Vidal N, Thiam S, Wade AS, Peeters M, Taver
Année de publication : 2019
Revue : BMC Pediatr
N° de volume : 19(1):47
Type : Article
Mise en ligne par : DIOP Halimatou