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Recharge Potentials Mapping using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques: Case of Shallow Aquifers in the Senegal River Delta

The objective of this paper is to assess potential recharge zones in the different shallow aquifers of the Senegal River delta face to major development challenges of irrigated agriculture and physical and environmental constraints (semi-arid climate, dam, management of hydrological reservoirs, etc.). This study based on a combination of remote sensing techniques and multi-criteria analysis of GIS has demonstrated that it has been possible to produce potential recharge maps by integrating different factors in GIS such as lithology, slope, land cover/land use, drainage network, irrigation network, and groundwater depth. These parameters controlling groundwater accumulation in the Senegal River Delta are evaluated in terms of 5 potentials classes namely: very good potentials, good, moderate, low and very low potentials. The resulting map, which has shown great efficiency in the evaluation of recharge potentials, reveals that classes of good and very good potential (representing respectively 22% and 4% of the area), are particularly observed in the alluvial plain on the rivers and the proximity of irrigated fields. Moderate and low classes which represent respectively 41% and 32% of the area are mainly observed in the dune formations and alluvial plain distant to recharge zones (rivers and irrigated fields). Very low potentials constitute 1% are located essentially in clayey cuvettes of the alluvial plain. The resulting map, which allows a qualitative and visual representation of their charge, has been validated by recharge rates estimated from water table fluctuation and by ages determined from the tritium (3H) activity in ground waters. Thus, results indicate that the areas with recharge classes estimated correspond also with potentials recharge mapped for example; areas with high recharge are also the ones with high recharge potential. They indicate that this mapping approach is very useful and valuable in identifying potentials recharge areas which can be an important element for groundwater resource management and their sustainable exploitation and identifying of favorable sites for the future well drilling project in this area.

Auteur(s) : Moctar Diaw1*, Ibrahima Mall, Serigne Faye and Yves Travi
Pages : 1-14
Année de publication : 2018
Revue : Journal of Environmental and Toxicological Studies
N° de volume : Volume 2 issue 2
Type : Article
Statut Editorial : open-access article
Mise en ligne par : DIAW Moctar