Enhancement and depletion of lower/middle tropospheric ozone in Senegal during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods of summer 2008: Observations and Model results
During the summer (8 June through 3 September) of 2008, 9 ozonesondes are launched from Dakar, Senegal (14.75° N, 17.49° W) to investigate ozone (O3) variability in the lower/middle troposphere during the pre-monsoon and monsoon periods. Results during June 2008 (pre-monsoon period) show a reduction in O3 concentrations, especially in the 850–700 hPa layer with Saharan Air Layer (SAL) events. However, O3 concentrations are increased in the 950–900 hPa layer where the peak of the inversion is found and presumably the highest dust concentrations. We also use the WRF-CHEM model to gain greater insights for observations of elevated/reduced O3 concentrations during the pre-monsoon/monsoon periods. In the transition period between 26 June and 2 July in the lower troposphere (925–600 hPa), a significant increase in O3 concentrations occur which we suggest is caused by enhanced biogenic NOx emissions from Sahelian soils following rain events on 28 June and 1 July. During July and August 2008 (monsoon period), with the exception of one SAL outbreak, vertical profiles of O3 are well mixed with concentrations not exceeding 55 ppb between the surface and 550 hPa. The results suggest that during the pre-monsoon period ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere are controlled by the SAL, which destroys ozone through heterogeneous processes. At the base of the SAL we also find elevated levels of ozone, which we attribute to biogenic sources of NOx from Saharan dust that are released in the presence of moist conditions. Once the monsoon period commences, wet and dry deposition become important sinks of ozone in the Sahel with episodes of ozone poor air that is horizontally transported from low latitudes into the Sahel. These results support aircraft chemical measurements and chemical modeling results from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) field campaign.
Auteur(s) : Jenkins, G. S., Ndiaye S. A., Gueye M., Fitzhugh R., Smith J. W., Kebe A.)
Année de publication : 2013
Revue : Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry
Type : Article
Mise en ligne par : NDIAYE Seydi Ababacar