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Measurements of NO2, SO2, NH3, HNO3 and O3 in West African urban Environments

In this paper, we present the measurements of atmospheric gas concentrations of NO2, SO2, NH3, HNO3 and O3 performed at two traffic sites in the context of the POLCA (Pollution of African Capitals) program. These gases were measured using a passive sampling technique from Jan. 2008 to Dec. 2009 at Dakar and from Jun. 2008 to Dec. 2009 at Bamako. In addition, during these periods there were two intensive measurement campaigns (from 19 Jan. to 2 Feb. 2009 at Bamako and from 30 Nov. to 13 Dec. 2009 at Dakar) where real-time active analysers were used to measure NO2 and SO2. Results show that Dakar has a pollution level for NO2 and SO2 higher than that of Bamako, whereas it is lower for NH3 concentrations. Monthly values of NO2 range between 21.1 and 43.5 ppb in Dakar with an annual mean concentration of 31.7 ppb (59.6 mg/m3). NO2 values in Bamako are 9.4e22.6 ppb with a mean of 16.2 ppb. At Dakar, the mean annual NO2 limit value (21.3 ppb or 40 mg/m3) recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is widely exceeded. The mean annual concentration of SO2 is 15.9 ppb in Dakar and 3.6 ppb in Bamako. These differences may be explained by different sources of traffic between Bamako (with mainly gasoline vehicles) and Dakar (with mainly diesel vehicles). The annual mean NH3 concentration is about two times higher in Bamako (46.7 ppb) than in Dakar (21.1 ppb). In addition to other possible sources, we assume that the ammonia from domestic fires and uncontrolled garbage incineration may have more influence at Bamako than at Dakar. The mean annual concentrations of HNO3 and O3 are 1.3 ppb and 7.7 ppb in Dakar and 0.6 ppb and 5.1 ppb in Bamako, respectively. Seasonal variation in measured gas concentrations are low in Bamako and more pronounced in Dakar, except for HNO3 and NH3. At Dakar, NO2 and SO2 daily mean concentrations are higher during the weekdays than on weekends, when urban activities are reduced, whereas at Bamako, no significant difference was observed between weekdays and weekends. At Dakar, the daily average concentrations of SO2 in the dry season (11.6 - 39.6 ppb) widely exceed the WHO air quality guideline (7.6 ppb or 20 mg/m3 as 24-h average). Finally, the spatial distribution of gases at different sites in these two capitals have been investigated and showed higher pollution levels at the traffic sites, especially for NO2, NH3 and SO2, and lower levels in the suburban area, with the exception of ozone.


Auteur(s) : Marcellin Adon, Veronique Yoboue, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Catherine Liousse , Babakar Diop, El Hadji Thierno Doumbia, Eric Gardrat, S. A. Ndiaye, Christi
Pages : 31-40
Année de publication : 2016
Revue : Atmospheric environment
N° de volume : 135
Type : Article
Mise en ligne par : NDIAYE Seydi Ababacar